Archives for March 2010 | Philippine Technology News & Reviews | YizhanTech

Archive | March, 2010

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Laser Technology

Posted on 30 March 2010 by yizhan

“Light Amplification by Simulated Emission of Radiation” LASER in short, its an electronic device that emits an extremely intense beam of energy in a form of light rays.   The laser function on the same basic principle as its forerunner, the maser and is sometimes referred as an optical maser.  In both device, atoms had their energy increased are simulated, causing them to release this excess energy.

Lasers lights differs from that emitted by conventional sources, such as a tungsten-filament electric lamp, in two important ways.  The first of this is that the laser light is spatially coherent; that i, the crest and trough of each light wave in the bean coincide with those of every other light  wave.  All other light sources produce incoherent light or light in which the crest and troughs of the waves do not coincide.

Laser light is monochromatic or of a single color; that is, all the light wave in the beam have the same wavelength.  Almost all conventional light source emit lights that is a mixture of wavelength, or colors, and as the result the light appears white.

Because of this features, laser offers a mean of promoting the growth of undeveloped  region of physics (primarily optics), photography, communications, ranging, surveying, nuclear fusion, medicine, chemistry and the fabrication of metal and ceramics.  The widest application of lasers to date is in the laboratories of scientific tools. The laser’s high intensity and monochromaticity provides significant advantage for such scientific fields as non linear optics, plasma diagnostic, schlienren photography, raman spectroscopy, metrology and interferometry, siesmology and solar simulation.

The technology of lasers are now developing in much higher rate. A single laser beam can now carry thousand of radio, television and telephone signals simultaneously, they are now used as the primary communication medium.

Laser technology is also used in medicine to treat retinal detachment.  If a retina, a light sensitive tissue at the back of the eye, when tears loosed from the eyeball, blindness may result.  When a laser beam is focused through  the lens of the eye, the intense burning rays cause scar to the tissues to form at the point of separations, reattaching the retina by fusing it to the underlying tissues.  Conventional surgical methods requires several hours to do this, but with the laser technology, it can only take a few seconds to weld the detached retina.

Laser is a technology that i consider a peace of tool with much greater use.  And upon its growth, we all benefits.

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Transistor

Posted on 28 March 2010 by yizhan

Transistor is a solid state device of semiconducting material used in amplifying or controlling electric current.  Transistors come in discreet packages or in arrays called integrated circuits, in which the active elements are no larger than about thousands of an inch (0.025 mm) across. Because of their extreme versatility, transistors have almost completely replaced vacuum tubes. A very large industry, solid state electronics has grown up  around the transistors and its application.

One of the first commercial application of transistors was in a telephone switching office.  Consumers first saw them in transistorized hearing aids, sales of which began in 1952. Transistors and their multiple form, integrated circuits, are found in radios, television sets, tape recorders, toys, handheld calculators, fire and burglar alarms, video games and control of all kinds – from light dimmers to speed control on drills and motors.

In our history, research in solid state physics had began growing since the 1930’s .  The invention of transistors, announced in 1948 , would, it was said, lead to the revolution in communications and electronics.

An enormous blossoming of science and technology accompanied the development of transistors.  Research in crystal growth, in solid state diffusion, in surface science, and in many other fields that benefits.

The point-contact transistor was invented by John Bardeen and Walter H.  Brattain of Bell Telephone Laboratories.  William Shockley, also of Bell, invented the commercially successful junction transistor.  The three shared the 1956 Nobel Price in physics for their work.

Progress led to new technologies, each requiring its particular disciplines and techniques.  Among the type of transistor developed are the point-contact germanium, the grown-junction germanium, the alloy germanium, the surface-barrier germanium,  the defused-based, the alloy-silicon based, the field effect transistor or known as the “FET”, junction field effect transistor “JFET” and the metal oxide semiconductor or “MOS ”.

Most transistor device are planar silicon, with some FET’s for special purposes, and silicon MOS components. Other current device , variant of transistors includes the thyristor or what we call the silicon controlled rectifier (SCR), and triacs which dominates high-current switching and control industry.

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Manila hit by 6.0 magnitude earthquake

Posted on 26 March 2010 by yizhan

MANILA, Philippines — A 6.0-magnitude earthquake struck west of Manila last Thursday march 25, 2010, the seismology institute reported, causing buildings in the Philippine capital to shake and sending frightened workers out of their offices.

There were no immediate reports of damage or casualties, and no tsunami alert was issued. Buildings in Manila shook for about 30 seconds.

The Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology initially reported the tremor had a magnitude of 6.2, but lowered it to 6.0 after receiving more field data, said its director, Renato Solidum.

“Essentially, this would not trigger significant damage,” Solidum said.

Editha Vargaz of the Land Bank of Philippine’s risk management group said she and dozens of other colleagues climbed down the stairs to the street from the bank’s headquarters on the 31st floor of the 34-story building.

“We were very calm,” she said, citing training from regular earthquake and fire evacuation drills.

However, there was panic among some employees in offices at the nearby 14-story Ramon Magsaysay Center, said Ralph Balmaceda, who works for a travel agency on the seventh floor.

While he and other staff hurried down the stairs, “most others were panicking and some even tried to shove others” to reach the street more quickly.

“It was scary because of the previous incidents in other countries,” said Balmaceda’s office mate Beth Rodriguez. “We thought it would be the same here also.”

Solidum said the quake was centered off Lubang Island in Mindoro Occidental province, about 80 miles (130 kilometers) southwest of Manila, six miles (10 kilometers) under the seabed.

The U.S. Geological Survey put the magnitude at 6.1 and depth at 21 miles (33 kilometers).

Lubang Island is near the southern end of the Manila Trench, a fault line about 560 miles (900 kilometers) long on the ocean floor under the South China Sea along the western flank of the Philippines’ main island of Luzon.

The Philippine archipelago lies in the so-called Pacific Ring of Fire where earthquakes are common. It is flanked by the Pacific Ocean to the east and the South China Sea to the west with undersea trenches – potential quake triggers – running alongside its coast on both sides.

The last major quake registered a magnitude 7.7 in 1990 and killed nearly 2,000 people on the main northern island of Luzon.

A 7.1-magnitude earthquake set off by a local fault near Lubang whipped up a tsunami that killed 78 people on Mindoro in 1994.

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Traveling through Time

Posted on 25 March 2010 by yizhan

Traveling forward and backwards to different dimension and time, “time travelan unsolved mystery in the world of physics. Theoretically, some physicist  like Sir Isaac Newton said, that time is always the same for any one who observe it in any reference frame. This has been the belief  and considered as a true fact by many people in the 19th century.

However, as the 20th century enter, a changes to the point of view with time related in physics. It is when James Maxwell led the development of the equation of electro-magnetic, for others to start investigating the consequences.  Among them who began investigating was a great scientist/physicist Albert Einstein. In his investigation and research, comes up with the theory that time is changeable and not constant.  He then concluded that when an object is put in a higher velocity or speed, it would shrink and go heavier and the time would be slower for the object that is  moving  to fast than the object that is moving slow.

Well this theory brings a great impact as shown in a story called Twin Paradox. Its about an experiment on a twin, one of them travels in to space in a high-speed rocket while the other one was left behind.  And when he return from his journey in to space, he notice that he aged lesser than his twin who was left behind.

Theories like special and general relativity, assumed that stable geometries of space-time such as specific types of movement in space could allow time travel forward and backwards in time.

As I’ve read in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (SEP), that time travel has a possibility in general relativity. It can occur in general relativistic models when one ha a closed time-like curves (CTC’s). It is simply a space-time trajectory in which the speed of light is not equaled or surpasses along this trajectory. It represent the possible trajectories of ordinary objects. therefore when time-like curve formed a loop, then travelling along CTC’s would never exceed the speed of light, instead after a certain amount of time it would return to a certain point in space time it previously visited. Or, just like returning back in time.

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Robotics and its Legacy

Posted on 21 March 2010 by yizhan

Robotics plays a great role in our technology today. It said to be the engineering science and main technology of robots. It is in relation with electronics, mechanics and software. Base in its history, the design for a humanoid robot or what was called the Mechanical Knight was design byLeonardo da Vinci in 1495. In 1737, Jacques de Vaucanson design a life-sized  automaton in the form of a duck.  The design was said to have the ability to eat grains to metabolize and defecate them. In 1800’s, The Japanese designed the karakuri toys , a mechanized puppet or automata that can served tea, fired arrows, and painted.

The robots  was first introduce to public  in the 20’s by  Czech writer Karel Čapek in his play R.U.R. (Rossum’s Universal Robots), the story was about a factory that build artificial people also known as the robots, more like an idea of an androids and clones – creatures who can be mistaken for humans, that has the ability to think by itself.

In 1933 – 1938,  a robot was build by pittsburgh-based Westinghouse it was named Electro, it is a seven feet tall robot and weighing 265 pounds, more like a humanoid.  It can walk by voice command, can speak about 700 words, blow up balloons, smoke a cigarettes and it can also move its arms and head.  Its eyes are consist of photoelectric materials tha can distinguish red and green light.

General Motorsluched Unimate in 1961 at New Jersey, it was the first industrial robots.  Its engineering technology was created by George Devolin the 50’s using his own original patents. Devol together with Joseph Engelberger started the “Unimation” it is a robot manufacturing company that was first ever build. The machine do the job of transporting die castings from an assembly lines to weld this parts on auto bodies.  Unimate is consisted of a computer box link to another box connected to an arm design for high speed operation in car manufacturing. since it is programmable, it can also do some other task.

In 1973 KUKA Robotis, a leading German producer of  industrial robots created the worl first industrial robot with six electromechanical driven axes, known as  FAMULUS. It ranges from 3 kg to 1300 kg payloads and 350 mm to 3700 mm reach, all controlled by a PC based controller platform.

The structure of robots is most likely the functionality of the human Body and its skeletal system or what we call the kenematic chain. It is consist of  links like  our bone,  actuators that can be compare to our muscles and joints that can allow a series degree of freedom. Robots are mostly powered by batteries, but potential power sources can be consider like pneumatic(compressed gasses), hydraulics(compressed liquid)  and a radio active source.

The legacy of robotics had help us in many ways through our living.  We could almost see them every where. almost all industry in manufacturing line uses an industrial robots and it gives them greater output and safety to the workers. We might even have a robot worker and helper in the future just like in the movies.

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Solar Panel

Posted on 18 March 2010 by yizhan

Solar panel, also known as photovoltaic module or photovoltaic panel is a device that collect light energy and convert it to electricity. It uses photovoltaic cells most commonly known as the solar cells. its development was started by a french physicist Antoine-César Bacquerel in his 1839 research. By observing  its effect while doing an experement with the solid electrode dipped in an electrolyte solution(the one used in a battery) he notice a voltage was developed when the electrode is exposed to sun light.

Around the 40’s solar cells, however, had a one percent energy conversion efficiency. It was then develop in the 50’s by three American researchers, Daryl Chapin, Gerald Pearson and Calvin Fuler(creator of the first solar panel). They design a silicon base solar cell and manage to increase its conversion efficiency up to seven percent. In their research, by exposing some strips of silicon solar cell to sun light, it capture the free electrons and convert it to electrical current. A year after, Bell Laboratories funded the research and manufacture the first (prototype) solar battery. It was comercialized

Now, many company and institution are developing the use of solar panel like in toys, small electronic gadgets, alternative power source for homes, to power a space station, solar powered supply for laptop computer and they are now developing the use of it for cars and other kinds of transportation. There are many university that are now competing in developing a solar powered rasing car and based on my research a one was held last October 7, 2007 in Australia it was the World Solar Challenge.  A technology like this could give a lot of contribution in our future needs.

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Cloud Seeding

Posted on 17 March 2010 by yizhan

Cloud seeding, sounds like manipulating nature in a good way to produce rain, it is useful in places that was affected by the el niño phenomena.   Referring to the 1903, 1915, 1919 and 1944 and 1947 weather modification experiments, the Australian Federation of Meteorology discounted “rain making.” By the 1950s the CSIRO Division of Radiophysics switched to investigating the physics of clouds and had hoped by 1957 to better understand these processes. By the 1960s the dreams of weather making had faded only to be re-ignited post-corporatisation of the Snowy Mountains Scheme in order to achieve “above target” water. This would provide enhanced energy generation and profits to the public agencies who are the principal owners.

Cloud seeding has been shown to be effective in altering cloud structure and size and in converting supercooled liquid water to ice particles. The amount of precipitation due to seeding is difficult to quantify. Cloud seeding may also suppress precipitation.

A key challenge is in discerning how much precipitation would have occurred had clouds not been seeded. Overall, there is general expectation that winter cloud seeding over mountains will produce snow, expressed by professional organizations. There is statistical evidence for seasonal precipitation increases of about 10% with winter seeding. The World Meteorological Organization has indicated that cloud seeding produces positive results in many cases but is dependent on many factors such as specificity of clouds, wind speed and direction, and terrain.

The cloud seeding process is done by seeding some chemical to the clouds.  Silver iodide and dry ice( frozen Carbon Dioxed) is one of the chemicals use in the proccess of cloud seeding .  Expansion of liquid propane into a gas was also used in cloud seeding proccess it can produce iced crystals at warmer temperature than silver iodide. But from some country like the Philippines they uses salts in the cloud seeding proccess aircracft drops large amount of salts when cumulus clouds is present.

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Automated Election in the Philippines

Posted on 15 March 2010 by yizhan

The conduct of elections in the Philippines for the past four decades has remained largely   unchanged. Philippine elections rely heavily on manual tallying and canvassing of votes thus making them vulnerable to control and manipulation by traditional politicians and those with vested interests.

The cost of winning an elective post is highly expensive, and the absence of mechanisms to checkand limit sources of campaign funds become fertile grounds for corruption and divisiveness.  In recent years, initiatives to reform the electoral system included the enactment of the following laws: Republic Act (RA) 8046, establishing a pilot program modernizing the registrationand vote counting process in the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao, the Party List Law,Fair Elections Act and the Absentee Voting Act.

To address the inadequacies and limitations of the electoral process, RA 8436 or the Election Automation Act of 1997, was passed authorizing the Commission on Elections (COMELEC) to use automated election system for vote counting and canvassing in the national and local polls. The law provided for the generation of a national computerized voters list, establishment of a voters identification card system and the automation of the vote counting. However, sectoral issues still hinder reform efforts in the electoral process. The following have been identified as basic problems afflicting the electoral system: (a) outdated electoral process; (b) failure to implement the electoral modernization law; (c) limited administrative and regulatory capabilities of the COMELEC; (d) ineffective educational/information campaigns on new laws and policies; (e) weak political party system; (f) unaccountable political financing; and (g) defective party list system (Governance Assessment, 2003).

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LCD Television

Posted on 12 March 2010 by yizhan

From CRT to Plasma Screen, now comes a new breakthrough  in television technology,  the  liquid crystal display (LCD).  For all we know, laptop computers, digital clocks and watches, microwave ovens, CD players and many other electronic devices uses this technology . They are common because it offer some real advantages over other display technologies. They are thinner and lighter and draw much less power than cathode ray tubes (CRTs), for example. now, imagine applying this kind of technology to a television. it would save a lot like power consumption less materials and radiation free.

Base on my research, the first LCD TV was released  last july 1, 1999 by Hitachi Ltd. it is the  C52-LC1 BIGSLIM 52, a 52-inch LCD projection TV with a high-brightness and high-contrast picture which are made possible by liquid-coupled cooling system applied for LCD projection TV first in the industry.

LCD television surpassed the technology of CRT based television, its sales figure relative to other technology was accelerated last 2007. the sales boost up even more.

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CRT

Posted on 12 March 2010 by yizhan

Cathode ray tube (CRT) was commonly used to display image on a television set, computer displays, radars and wave forms  osciloscope. It is composed of a vacum tube wit th eff. basic  components                                                                   

  • Three Electron guns (for red, green, and blue phosphor dots)
  • Electron beams
  • Focusing coils
  • Deflection coils
  • Anode connection
  • Mask for separating beams for red, green, and blue part of displayed image
  • Phosphor layer with red, green, and blue zones
  • Close-up of the phosphor-coated inner side of the screen

The first cathode ray tube to use a hot cathode was developed by John B. Johnson (who gave his name to the term Johnson noise) and Harry Weiner Weinhart of Western Electric, and became a commercial product in 1922.

The earliest version of the CRT was invented by the German physicist Ferdinand Braun in 1897 and is also known as the Braun tube. It was a cold-cathode diode, a modification of the Crookes tube with a phosphor-coated screen. and  In 1907, Russian scientist Boris Rosing used a CRT in the receiving end of an experimental video signal to form a picture. He managed to display simple geometric shapes onto the screen, which marked the first time that CRT technology was used for what is now known as television.

The CRT uses an evacuated glass envelope which is large, deep, heavy, and relatively fragile. this kind of technology was once very usefull but now a history, since new technolgy comes like plasma and LCD display.

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